## Erdeven Alignment's counting of Metonic and Saros Periods

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The word Alignment is used in France to describe its stone rows. Their interpretation has been various, from being an army turned to stone (a local myth) to their use like graph paper, for extrapolation of values (Thom). That stone rows were alignments to horizon events gives a partial but useful explanation, since menhirs (or standing stones) do form a web of horizon alignments to solstice sun and to the moon's extreme rising and setting event, at maximum and minimum standstill. At Carnac the solstice sun was aligned to the diagonal of the 4 by 3 rectangle and maximum and minimum standstill moon aligned to the diagonal of a single or double square, respectively.

It seems quite clear today that stone rows at least represented the counting of important astronomical time periods. We have seen at Crocuno that eclipse periods, exceeding the solar year, are accompanied by some rectalinear structures (Le Manio, Crucuno, Kerzerho) which embody counting in miniature, as if to record it, and it has been observed that cromlechs (or large stone kerb monuments) were built at the ends of the long stone rows of Carnac and Erdeven. Sometimes, a cromlech initiated a longer count, with or without stone rows, that ended with a rectangle (Crucuno). The focus on counting time naturally reveals a vernacular quite unique to this region and epoch. We have seen that the Kerzerho alignments were at least a 4 by 3 rectangle which recorded the 235 lunar months in feet along its diagonal to midsummer solstice sunset. After that rectangle there follows a massive Alignment of stone rows to the east, ending after 2.3 km having gradually changed their bearing to 15 degrees south of east. Just above the alignments lies a hillock with multiple dolmens and a north-south stone row (Mané Braz) whilst below its eastern extremity lies the tumulus and dolmen, "T-shaped passage-grave" (Burl. 196) called Mané Groh.

Read more: Erdeven Alignment's counting of Metonic and Saros Periods

## Another Rectangle near Kerzerho

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In 1973, Alexander Thom found the Crucuno rectangle to have been "accurately placed east and west" by its megalithic builders, and "built round a rectangle 30 MY [megalithic yards] by 40 MY" and that "only at the latitude of Crucuno could the diagonals of a 3, 4, 5 rectangle indicate at both solstices the azimuth of the sun rising and setting when it appears to rest on the horizon." In a recent article I found metrology was used between the Crucuno dolmen (within Crucuno) and the rectangle in the east to count 47 lunar months, since this closely approximates 4 eclipse years (of 346.62 days) which is the shortest eclipse prediction period available to early astronomers.

*Figure 1 Two key features of Crucuno's Rectangle*

## Lunar Counting from Crucuno Dolmen to its Rectangle

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*Figure 1 The entrance of Crucuno's cromlech, which opens to the south-east [Summer Solstice, 2007]*

It is not immediately obvious that the Crucuno dolmen (figure 1) faces the Crucuno rectangle about 1100 feet to the east. Dolmens appear to have been used to mark the beginning significant time counts. At Carnac's Alignments there are large cromlechs initiating and terminating the stone rows which, more explicitly, appear like counts. The only (surviving) intermediate stone lies 216 feet from the dolmen, within a garden and hard-up to another building, as with the dolmen (see figure 2). This length is interesting since it is twice the longest inner dimension of the Crucuno rectangle, implying that lessons learned in interpreting the rectangle might usefully apply when interpreting the distance at which this outlier was placed from the dolmen. Most obviously, the rectangle is 4 x 27 feet wide and so the outlier is 8 x 27 feet from the dolmen.

*Figure 2 The in-town outlier to the east of the Crucuno dolmen. [photo: Robin Heath, 2007]*

Momentarily at least, one can consider the two lengths of (210-) 216 feet relating to 108 feet of the rectangle and I believe dolmen to centre of rectangle to be about 1105 feet. The combined monument is then as figure 3.

*Figure 3 The combined monument seen within satellite data, showning two key dimensions in white, the section above magnifying the in-town components.*

### The Metrological Key to Crucuno

Read more: Lunar Counting from Crucuno Dolmen to its Rectangle

## John Michell's New Jerusalem Diagram

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These days we take a measurement or define a length and call it a radius or diameter for a circle, using an irrational value for the ratio between a radius (or diameter) and the circle's perimeter, called PI - a Greek letter - which is 3.141592654 etc, where the fractional part has no limit of non-repeating cyclicity.

### Circumferences of Ancient Circles

In the ancient world, irrational numbers like PI required one to find an accurate rational approximation, in the form of a ratio between two whole numbers (called integers). The simplest and most accurate of these, rather than 3.141592654..., was 22/7 = 3.*142857 *, which meant that if a diameter was considered of seven parts then the circumference produced when arcing a rope around a central peg would be 22 of the same units. Since that rope from the centre would be half the diameter then if the diameter is 14 units, the rope is half that or seven units and the circumference must be twice 22 units long or 44 units. The advantage of seeing the diameter or radius as containing seven units is that the denominator of 22/7 divides into those seven units leaving the circumference as 22 or 44 units.

Another habit of the ancient world was to analyse geometrical situations in terms of an underlying grid, so with a radius of seven units the following figure shows the situation "on the ground":

*Figure 1 The Circle Radius seven for a PI of 22/7 leading to 44 units around the perimeter*

## Crop Circle Phenomenon & Crooked Soley

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This article explores another modern and highly transient manifestation belonging to the category of Landforms, the crop circle. Thought in seventeenth century England to be the work of a mowing devil, and more recently hoaxers, the large crop fields created since the post-war tractor revolution play host to "sacred art" designs that farmers find intrusive, attracting members of the public (to be a-mazed) and aviators to curate these patterns for posterity. The tabloids used to indulge full page colour sections to crop circles but then were dissuaded perhaps by officialdom (we are mad) and apathy (we lose interest) since the finest examples do not give any trace of manual construction.

*Figure 1 The first known newspaper story involving a Crop Circle*

The majority of reports of crop circles have appeared since the late 1970s[12] as many circles began appearing throughout the English countryside. This phenomenon became widely known in the late 1980s, after the media started to report crop circles in Hampshire and Wiltshire. After Bower's and Chorley's 1991 statement that they were responsible for many of them, circles started appearing all over the world.[10] To date, approximately 10,000 crop circles have been reported internationally, from locations such as the former Soviet Union, the UK, Japan, the U.S., and Canada. Sceptics note a correlation between crop circles, recent media coverage, and the absence of fencing and/or anti-trespassing legislation.[30] See <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crop_circle>

## Fields, Racetracks and Temples in Ancient Greece

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17 July 2017

The fields of ancient Greece were organised in a familiar way: strips of land in which a plough could prepare land for arable planting. Known in various languages as furlong, runrig, Fr. journel, G. machen etc, and in Greece there was a nominal length for arable strips which came to be associated with the metrological unit of 600 feet called a stadia. The length of foot used was systematically varied from the foot we use today, using highly disciplined variations (called modules); each module a numeric ratio of the Greek module, whose root foot was the English foot [Neal, 2000]. These modules are found employed throughout the ancient world, lengthening or reducing lengths such as the stadia, to suit geometrical problems; such as the division of land into fields (figure 1). The English furlong is a stadia of the Saxon module whose root value is 1.1 feet, hence it is 660 feet long and remains one eighth of the English mile (5280 feet), the mile being defined in ancient metrology as 5000 feet.

*Figure 1 The land area of an acre x 15 considered the amount of land tillable by one ox in a ploughing season*

### The Distribution of Land

The word stadia became implicit in our sports stadiums because ancient Greeks used field areas as racetracks for their competitions. Their greatest games was held at Olympia’s racetrack, site of a pan-Hellenic Games now re-instituted (since1886) as today’s Olympic Games. Whilst the modern Olympics are competitions between states, racing was mythologically significant in ancient Greece. The original stadia were simply field-shaped runways; to an endpoint about a furlong (or "fur-rows long") away. Later two straight tracks were joined together by a two semi-circles (or sperium) allowing indefinite lengths of race, and giving us the modern type of stadium.

* Figure 2 The Racetrack at Olympia*

## John Michell's Perpetual Choirs

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In 1972 John Michell first inferred an enormous ten-sided form nearly sixty three miles across, in which important historical and neolithic sites had been intended as ten vertices around an ancient centre, signified by a Whiteleafed Oak (see previous article extract).

Figure 1 The Decagon of Perpetual Choirs, anchored upon Stonehenge, the Solstice sunrise in summer and set in winter

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